1) Okasha notes that, if we want to use abductive inferences, we have to know how to determine if one explanation is better than another. What popular answer for deciding which theory is best does he mention?
1A)The simplest explanation (i.e. the one with the fewest necessary components) is the best one
2)According to Sober, what two factors influence the strength of an inductive inference?
2A)(1) The size of the sample and (2) the representativeness of the sample
3)According to Okasha, what feature makes an inference a deductive inference?
3A)If the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true as well
4)True or False: According to Okasha, scientists are not interested in probability, so it need not be a major concern for philosophers.
5)True or False: According to Sober’s definition, the following argument is an abductive argument that avoids the “Only Game in Town Fallacy”:
A theist (i.e. one who believes in God) asks an atheist to explain how the universe came to be. The atheist says that she does not know. The theist says that his explanation is that God spoke the universe into existence. He says that since the atheist can’t come up with a better explanation of her own, then she should accept his explanation.
6)According to Sober, which of the following best describes philosophical method?
6A)Trying to reach answers to important philosophical questions by reasoning correctly from assumptions that are plausible
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